Joseph Fielding Smith, Ch. 20: “Love and Concern for All Our Father’s Children.”

We cannot truly love God if we do not love our fellow travelers on this mortal journey. Likewise, we cannot fully love our fellowmen if we do not love God, the Father of us all. The Apostle John tells us, “This commandment have we from him, That he who loveth God love his brother also.” We are all spirit children of our Heavenly Father and, as such, are brothers and sisters. As we keep this truth in mind, loving all of God’s children will become easier.

Actually, love is the very essence of the gospel, and Jesus Christ is our Exemplar.[1]

"Actually, love is the very essence of the gospel, and Jesus Christ is our Exemplar."

“Actually, love is the very essence of the gospel, and Jesus Christ is our Exemplar.”

These words, spoken by President Thomas S. Monson this spring are reflective of the theme of this lesson built from quotes from another president of the Church. In chapter 20 of Teachings of the Presidents of the Church: Joseph Fielding Smith, President Smith teaches us to love and serve all of God’s children. In the “From the life of Joseph Fielding Smith” section, three examples of loving service are given by Joseph himself. Section 1 focuses on the idea that we are all children of God, and should love each other because we’re spiritual siblings. Section 2 focuses on working together and caring for each other, with a special focus on Church contexts. Section 3 encourages us to serve and help each other. Section 4 has a charming story about a horse President Smith took care of as a child with the message that we ought not to judge, but take the good in everyone and make room for a few faults. Section 5 focuses on the doctrinal necessity to love God and our fellow humans.

Extra-Manual Resources and Quotes

Perhaps the most obvious choice for a supplementary talk to this lesson is the general conference address by President Thomas S. Monson cited above, and available in full here. Beyond that, however, there are a plethora of quotes and comments available on the subject of love, service, and charity. Another great talk from a few years ago on friendship and love is Marlin K. Jensen, “Friendship: A Gospel Principle,” General Conference, April 1999. Another useful resource related to the story of President Smith’s horse is a clip taken from a short documentary that relates the story of going out with his mother in the middle of the night. It could be used to introduce the section and break up the lesson just a little, and is available here.

President Thomas S. Monson

President Thomas S. Monson

I also have several quotes from sisters, most of which, though directed to the Relief Society, are applicable to men. For example, Lucy Mack Smith taught the Relief Society in 1842 that: “We must cherish one another, watch over one another, comfort one another and gain instruction that we may all sit down in heaven together.”[2] Sister Clarissa Smith Williams, Relief Society President, taught in 1922 that: “The greatest thing in the world is love. And if we keep that always in our hearts, and give it as a message to those about us, we will be blessed and will be instruments in blessing those with whom we associate.”[3] Mary Ellen Smoot, Relief Society President, taught in 2000 that: “When we unitedly serve each other and all of our Father’s children, we can be instruments in the hands of God, not only to relieve physical suffering but, more importantly, to succor those who are in need spiritually.”[4]

Yet another wonderful address on the subject came in 2006 from President Gordon B. Hinckley: Gordon B. Hinckley, “The Need for Greater Kindness,” General Conference, April 2006. A few excerpts are as follows:

I have wondered why there is so much hatred in the world. We are involved in terrible wars with lives lost and many crippling wounds. Coming closer to home, there is so much of jealousy, pride, arrogance, and carping criticism; fathers who rise in anger over small, inconsequential things and make wives weep and children fear.

Racial strife still lifts its ugly head. I am advised that even right here among us there is some of this. I cannot understand how it can be….

Throughout my service as a member of the First Presidency, I have recognized and spoken a number of times on the diversity we see in our society. It is all about us, and we must make an effort to accommodate that diversity.

Let us all recognize that each of us is a son or daughter of our Father in Heaven, who loves all of His children….

Why can’t all of us reach out in friendship to everyone about us? Why is there so much bitterness and animosity? It is not a part of the gospel of Jesus Christ.”[5]

President Gordon B. Hinckley

President Gordon B. Hinckley

When it comes to serving and caring for others, a great sermon given in general conference a few years ago by President Henry B. Eyring entitled “Opportunities to Do Good,” comes to mind. If I could, I would place the entire talk here as the essential quotes from it, but I will simply encourage the reader to click the hyperlink to read or view the talk on their own. From the most recent general conference, we have Elder Jeffrey R. Holland’s talk, “Are We Not All Beggars?” There is also, of course the classic quote from Gordon B. Hinckley: “Generally speaking, the most miserable people I know are those who are obsessed with themselves; the happiest people I know are those who loose themselves in the service of others…. By and large, I have come to see that if we complain about life, it is because we are thinking only of ourselves.”[6]

The Ready Resources for Relief Society book I have lists several websites that are handy for discovering service opportunities in the area.[7] A few sites that are currently still existent are as follows:

www.volunteermatch.org

www.idealist.org

www.serve.gov

www.nationalservice.gov

In addition the following Church-sponsored sites have some service resources to look into:

www.ldsphilanthropies.org

www.ldscharities.org

https://vineyard.lds.org/

Come unto Christ Moment

"And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me." Image courtesy LDS.org.

“And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me.”
Image courtesy LDS.org.

Towards the end of his earthly ministry, Jesus Christ taught the following to his disciples:

When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats: And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in: Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me.

Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee drink? When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee? Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee?

And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me. Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: For I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not.

Then shall they also answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee?

Then shall he answer them, saying, verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me. And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal. (Matthew 25: 31-46.)

The Lord makes it clear that the dividing line between those beings who are saved and those who are not is the service provided to fellow humans in this life’s journey, which in turn reflects on relationships with Himself. King Benjamin likewise taught that: “when ye are in the service of your fellow beings ye are only in the service of your God,” (Mosiah 2:17) and stated, in effect, there is no way we can directly repay God Himself for all that He blesses us with:

I say unto you, my brethren, that if you should render all the thanks and praise which your whole soul has power to possess, to that God who has created you, and has kept and preserved you, and has caused that ye should rejoice, and has granted that ye should live in peace one with another—I say unto you that if ye should serve him who has created you from the beginning, and is preserving you from day to day, by lending you breath, that ye may live and move and do according to your own will, and even supporting you from one moment to another—I say, if ye should serve him with all your whole souls yet ye would be unprofitable servants. (Mosiah 2:20-21.)

Thus, we serve and repay God in some degree by serving our fellow humans. To King Benjamin, as it was to Christ, to neglect other human beings in need was to neglect God. To serve and impart substance to the poor was to serve God and a necessary part of the process of “retaining a remission of sins from day to day.” (Mosiah 4:26.) Elder B.H. Roberts once expressed this idea succinctly: “About the only way in which men can effectively express their love for God is through service to the children of God, to men.”[8]

"When ye are in the service of your fellow beings ye are only in the service of your God.”

“When ye are in the service of your fellow beings ye are only in the service of your God.”

God places a premium upon the human soul, revealing to Joseph Smith that “the worth of souls is great in the sight of God; for, behold, the Lord your Redeemer suffered death in the flesh; wherefore he suffered the pain of all men, that all men might repent and come unto him. And he hath risen again from the dead, that he might bring all men unto him, on conditions of repentance.” (D&C 18:10-11). Elsewhere, it was revealed by God that, “This is my work and my glory—to bring to pass the immortality and eternal life of man.” (Moses 1:39.) This being God’s purpose, He is pleased when we work together to help rather than hinder each other in the process of gaining eternal life. That is why James wrote that: “Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction and to keep himself unspotted from the world.” (James 1:27.) At its heart, religion is for shaping us into beings that partake of the divine nature and giving us opportunities to develop right relationships with God and with our fellow humans.  The Prophet Joseph Smith, in addressing social righteousness, once stated that, “Righteousness is not that which men esteem holiness. That which the world call righteousness I have not any regard for. To be righteous is to be just and merciful. If a man fails in kindness justice and mercy he will be damed.”[9] Once more, righteousness is equated with how we treat each other.

Christ is not only pleased when we serve each other, but he showed the example we need to follow in how we treat each other, for, as President Monson observed: “Love is the very essence of the gospel, and Jesus Christ is our Exemplar. His life was a legacy of love. The sick He healed; the downtrodden He lifted; the sinner He saved. At the end the angry mob took His life. And yet there rings from Golgotha’s hill the words: ‘Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do’—a crowning expression in mortality of compassion and love.”[10]

A Deeper Look

I’ve discussed this idea in my other blog,[11] but in all the recorded sermons and writings of Joseph Smith, Jr. available to us today, only three principles were ever given the lofty title of being a “grand, fundamental principle of Mormonism” or even simply the “fundamental principles.” If taken as the pillars of Mormonism, these principles could be considered the definitive essence of Mormonism, comparable to the “Five Pillars” of Islam or the “Four Noble Truths” and “Eightfold Path” of Buddhism. Yet, while most Mormons would be familiar with, for example, the 12 Articles of Faith or the threefold purpose of the Church, they probably could not list the grand fundamental principles of Mormonism enumerated by Joseph Smith in the latter end of his life.

Joseph Smith, Jr. laid down a few fundamental principles of Mormonism in his final years.

Joseph Smith, Jr. laid down a few fundamental principles of Mormonism in his final years.

What, then, are these pillars of Mormonism? In 1838, Joseph wrote that, “The fundamental principles of our religion are the testimony of the Apostles and Prophets, concerning Jesus Christ, that He died, was buried, and rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven; and all other things which pertain to our religion are only appendages to it.”[12] Then, in the summer of 1843, Joseph declared that, “the grand fundamental principles of Mormonism is to recieve thruth let it come from where it may,”[13] and that “friendship is the grand fundamental principle of Mormonism.”[14] While each of these three principles deserves a good look, the principle of friendship is the most pertinent to this chapter in the Joseph Fielding Smith manual.

In August of 1842, the Prophet wrote that, “How good and glorious it has seemed unto me, to find pure and holy friends, who are faithful, just, and true, and whose hearts fail not.”[15] On another occasion, he wrote that, “There are many souls whom I have loved stronger than death. To them I have proved faithful—to them I am determined to prove faithful, until God calls me to resign up my breath.”[16] Amidst all the trials and betrayals he had experienced, and perhaps because of those things, Joseph put great value on true friendship. He also felt that friendship could create a heaven wherever it was held: “Animation, virtue, love, contentment, philanthropy, benevolence, compassion, humanity and friendship push life into bliss.”[17] “Let me be resurrected with the saints whether to heaven or hell or any other good place—[where they are is] good society. what do we care if the society is good?”[18]

Beyond the friendships that played important roles in his life, friendship with its consequent brotherhood and sisterhood played an important role in the Prophet’s religious thought. In the Book of Mormon, the foundational document of Mormonism, the Nephite people are visited by the resurrected Christ, who (among other things) declared that, “verily, verily I say unto you, he that hath the spirit of contention is not of me, but is of the devil, who is the father of contention, and he stirreth up the hearts of men to contend with anger, one with another.” (3 Nephi 11:29.) Contention—the opposite of friendship and unity—was of the devil. Building on the teachings of a series of visits from the Christ, the people of the Book of Mormon built a utopian society where “there were no contention in the land, because of the love of God which did dwell in the hearts of the people…. And surely there could not be a happier people among all the people who had been created by the hand of God.” (4 Nephi 1:15-16.) Tribal divisions that had formerly existed among the people faded away during this time, being replaced by unity in Christianity: “There were no… Lamanites, nor any manner of ites’ but they were in one, the Children of Christ, and heirs to the kingdom of God.” (4 Nephi 1:17.) After hundreds of years, this utopian society collapsed, but this was not the last time such a society would appear in Joseph Smith’s restoration scriptures. In his inspired translation of Genesis, Joseph spoke of the people of Enoch, who were called “Zion, because they were of one heart and one mind, and dwelt in righteousness; and there was no poor among them” (Moses 7:18). These people built a city that was called “City of Holiness, even Zion” which was so righteous, that God took it up into heaven. (Moses 7:19-21.)

City of Enoch, or Zion

City of Enoch, or Zion

Together, this dynamic duo of societies demonstrated the ideal that Joseph tried to have the Saints in his day live as they sought to build their own Zion on earth—a people, united in love and friendship. Among the commands given in the voice of the Lord to prepare the Saints to go to the land that Joseph designated as Zion are imperatives such as, “let every man esteem his brother as himself, and practice virtue and holiness before me…. I say unto you, be one; and if ye are not one ye are not mine.” (D&C 38:24, 27.) When Zion failed and the Saints were driven out of the land, it was declared to be at least partly because, “there were jarrings, and contentions, and envyings, and strifes, and lustful and covetous desires among them; therefore by these things they polluted their inheritances.” (D&C 101:6.) Although the Saints had lost their chance to build the city called Zion for the time being, they still strove to build stakes or outposts of Zion wherever they ended up—a process that, though spiritualized in many way, still continues today.[19]

In addition to the idea of building a physical kingdom of believers united in bonds of love, friendship manifests itself in other core aspects of Mormonism. Salvation, in Joseph Smith’s view, was obtained through covenants and related ordinances, and these covenants of salvation were not only to be made between humans and God, but also between human beings. Most explicit of all covenants of friendship revealed by Joseph Smith, perhaps, was the covenant members of the School of the Prophets made, in which participants greeted each other and declared that, “I receive you to fellowship, in a determination that is fixed, immovable, and unchangeable, to be your friend and brother through the grace of God in the bonds of love, to walk in all commandments of God blameless, in thanksgiving, forever and ever.” (D&C 88:133.) Baptism, for another example, not only involved taking the name of Christ upon an individual but also the covenant to “bear one another’s burdens… mourn with those that mourn; yea, and comfort hose that stand in need of comfort.” (Mosiah 18:8-9.) In addition, the crowning ordinance to be performed for most Mormons in mortality was and is the marriage ordinance performed in the temple, which not only involves covenants with God, but binds a man and wife as well any children they have or may have together eternally by priesthood authority as well as with covenants to each other.

Fellowship among the Saints was also prerequisite to gain power and reconciliation with God. Joseph told the Relief Society that, “it grieves me that there is no fuller fellowship—if one member suffer all feel it[.] by union of feeling we obtain pow’r with God”[20]  and that, “If you would have God have mercy on you, have mercy on one another.”[21] Likewise, in the version of the Sermon on the Mount preached by the risen Christ in the Book of Mormon, the Christ states that, “Therefore, if ye shall come unto me, or shall desire to come unto me, and rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee—go thy way unto thy brother, and first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come unto me with full purpose of heart, and I will receive you.” (3 Nephi 12:23-24.) To reconcile with Christ, the Saints must reconcile with each other.

"By union of feeling we obtain pow'r with God.”

“By union of feeling we obtain pow’r with God.”

Part of Joseph Smith’s vision for this grand principle of Mormonism, at least by the end of his life in 1844, was to bridge ecclesiastical differences and build friendships with people who believed than the Mormons. In 1842, the Prophet wrote that:

The Mussulman condemns the heathen, the Jew, and the Christian, and the whole world of mankind that reject his Koran, as infidels, and consigns the whole of them to perdition. The Jew believes that the whole world that rejects his faith and are not circumcised, are Gentile dogs, and will be damned. The heathen is equally as tenacious about his principles, and the Christian consigns all to perdition who cannot bow to his creed, and submit to his ipse dixit [dogma].

But while one portion of the human race is judging and condemning the other without mercy, the Great Parent of the universe looks upon the whole of the human family with a fatherly care and paternal regard; He views them as His offspring, and without any of those contracted feelings that influence the children of men, causes “His sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.”[22]

Like the God Joseph portrayed here, Joseph taught that Mormons were to reach out, care for, and befriend men and women of other faiths. He declared that, “If it has been demonstrated that I have been willing to die for a Mormon I am bold to declare before heaven that I am just as ready to die for a presbyterian. a baptist or any other denomination.”[23] Further, in July of 1843—a time when Mormonism was becoming more distant from mainstream Christianity and its teachings—Joseph offered this interesting statement in a sermon that was noted as “a conciliatory address to Strangers & all”:

“Wherein do you differ from other in your religious views?” In reality & essence we do not differ so far in our religious views but that we could all drink into one principle of love One the grand fundamental principles of Mormonism is to recieve thruth let it come from where it may.—we belive in the great Eloheim. who sits enthroned in yonder heavens.—so do the presbyterians. If as a skillful mechanic In taking a welding heat I use a borax & allum &c. an succeed in welding you all together shall I not have attained a good object.

if I esteem mankind to be in error shall I bear them down? No! I will will lift them up. & in his own way if I cannot persuade him my way is better! & I will ask no man to believe as I do. Do you believe in Jesus Chrst &c? So do I. Christians should cultivate the friendship with others & will do it.[24]

“But how truly magnanimous this declaration is,” observes writer Don Bradley, “cannot be appreciated without knowing the origin within scripture of the phrase ‘drink into one.’” Bradley continues:

Outside of the 9 July 1843 sermon, the phrase appears in LDS literature only in 1 Corinthians 12:13, where Paul uses the expression to explain the mystical or metaphorical “body of Christ”:

For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit. (1 Corinthians 12:12–13)

Invoking this passage, Joseph Smith conveyed the radical idea that the Latter-day Saints and those of other traditions jointly comprise the body of Christ….

Joseph envisioned a Christendom united by faith in God and Jesus Christ and by mutual love, a contemplated unity which might best be understood on the model offered by Freemasonry. Freemasons have long sought cross-denominational unity, without ecclesiastical integration, based on belief in God, brotherhood, and a commitment to truth and to relieving the needs of the poor.

While advocating Christian unity, however, Joseph clearly did not envision the institutional unification of Christendom, the merging of all church structures into one. He continued to maintain Mormonism’s exclusive claims to authority to perform ordinances or sacraments. Sandwiched between his ecumenical 9 July and 23 July sermons, for instance, Joseph dictated and taught a revelatory text declaring that the sacrament of marriage was eternally binding only if performed by the priesthood of Elijah and that Joseph himself was the one man on earth holding the keys of this priesthood.[25]

"If as a skillful mechanic In taking a welding heat I use a borax & allum &c. an succeed in welding you all together shall I not have attained a good object?"

“Friendship [is] like Bro Turley [in his] Blacksmith Shop [welding iron to iron; it unites the human family with its happy influence].”

In a sermon preached later in the month, Joseph continued the thought of welding all religions together in bonds of friendship by teaching that:

Friendship is the grand fundamental principle of Mormonism, [it is designed] to revolution[ize and] civilize the world.—pour forth love. Friendship [is] like Bro Turley [in his] Blacksmith Shop [welding iron to iron; it unites the human family with its happy influence]…. [If the] Presbyterians [have] any truth. embrace that. [Same for the] Baptist. Methodist &c. get all the good in the world. [and you will] come out a pure Mormon.[26]

Friendship is on the of grand fundamental principles of Mormonism and ought to be a defining force in all interactions that Mormons have with those inside their families and faith communities as well as with those of other faiths. If applied more fully, as Joseph Smith taught it should be, it would not only revolutionize and civilize the world, but would turn Mormonism into a veritable heaven on earth.

[1] Thomas S. Monson, “Love—the Essence of the Gospel,” CR, April 2014.

[2] Susan Christiansen, et. al (editors), Words of Wisdom: A Collection of Quotes for LDS Women, (Lulu, 5.

[3] Words of Wisdom, 5.

[4] Words of Wisdom, 63.

[5] Gordon B. Hinckley, “The Need for Greater Kindness,” General Conference, April 2006

[6] Gordon B. Hinckley, Teachings of Gordon B. Hinckley (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1997), 589.

[7] Boice, Trina (2013-11-13). The Ready Resource for Relief Society Teaching: Joseph Fielding Smith (Kindle Locations 2330-2333). Cedar Fort, Inc.. Kindle Edition.

[8] B.H. Roberts, CR, April 1914, 101.

[9] Cook, Lyndon W. (2009-09-03). The Words of Joseph Smith (Kindle Locations 4052-4053). Deseret Book Company. Kindle Edition.

[10] Thomas S. Monson, “Love—the Essence of the Gospel,” CR, April 2014.

[11] The full essay that this comes from is available here.

[12] Joseph Smith, Jr., Teachings of the Presidents of the Church: Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2007), 49.

[13] Cook, Lyndon W. (2009-09-03). The Words of Joseph Smith (Kindle Locations 4598-4604). Deseret Book Company. Kindle Edition

[14] Cook, Lyndon W. (2009-09-03). The Words of Joseph Smith (Kindle Locations 4714-4719). Deseret Book Company. Kindle Edition

[15] Joseph Smith, Jr., Teachings of the Presidents of the Church: Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), 461.

[16] Smith, Teachings of the Presidents, 463

[17] Smith, Teachings of the Presidents, 342

[18] Cook, Lyndon W. (2009-09-03). The Words of Joseph Smith (Kindle Locations 4714-4719). Deseret Book Company. Kindle Edition

[19] For further reading on the idea of Zion in Mormonism, I have a four-part series of blog posts starting here.

[20] Cook, Lyndon W. (2009-09-03). The Words of Joseph Smith (Kindle Locations 2607-2608). Deseret Book Company. Kindle Edition

[21] Cook, Lyndon W. (2009-09-03). The Words of Joseph Smith (Kindle Location 2621). Deseret Book Company. Kindle Edition

[22] Times and Seasons, 15 April 1842, 758

[23] Cook, Lyndon W. (2009-09-03). The Words of Joseph Smith (Kindle Locations 4592-4596). Deseret Book Company. Kindle Edition

[24] Cook, Lyndon W. (2009-09-03). The Words of Joseph Smith (Kindle Locations 4598-4604). Deseret Book Company. Kindle Edition

[25] Bradley, “Grand Fundamental Principles,” 37

[26] Cook, Lyndon W. (2009-09-03). The Words of Joseph Smith (Kindle Locations 4714-4719). Deseret Book Company. Kindle Edition. The brackets are added from clarity, and the longer sections added are taken from the History of the Church rendition of the sermon.

Joseph Fielding Smith, Ch. 19: In the World, but Not of the World

O Babylon, O Babylon, we bid thee farewell;

We’re going to the mountains of Ephraim to dwell.[1]

These words from a hymn sung by LDS members capture the literal quest of Mormons in the 1800s—to flee from the world and come to the Mormon refuge in the Great Basin region of the United States. While many hymns in our current hymn book capture this feeling of desire to gather to Utah so well that their modern relevance is questionable, this particular hymn also captures the figurative quest of Mormons to day—to leave the worldly ways and seek to live a more divine standard. As Elder Jeffery R. Holland taught in 2012:

One of the many unique characteristics of our dispensation, this the dispensation of the fulness of times—the last and greatest of all dispensations—is the changing nature of how we establish the kingdom of God on earth. You see, one of the truly exciting things about this dispensation is that it is a time of mighty, accelerated change. And one thing that has changed is that the Church of God will never again flee. It will never again leave Ur in order to leave Haran, in order to leave Canaan, in order to leave Jerusalem, in order to leave England, in order to leave Kirtland, in order to leave Nauvoo, in order to go who knows where. No, as Brigham Young said for us all, “We have been kicked out of the frying-pan into the fire, out of the fire into the middle of the floor, and here we are and here we will stay.”

Of course, that statement wasn’t a comment about the Salt Lake Valley only or even the Wasatch Front generally; it became a statement for the members of the Church all over the world. In these last days, in this our dispensation, we would become mature enough to stop running. We would become mature enough to plant our feet and our families and our foundations in every nation, kindred, tongue, and people permanently. Zion would be everywhere—wherever the Church is. And with that change—one of the mighty changes of the last days—we no longer think of Zion as where we are going to live; we think of it as how we are going to live.[2]

"We no longer think of Zion as where we are going to live; we think of it as how we are going to live."

“We no longer think of Zion as where we are going to live; we think of it as how we are going to live.” Image courtesy of LDS.org.

Lesson 19 of the Joseph Fielding Smith manual is about living in the world, but not being of the world—another way of expressing creating Zion while dwelling in Babylon. The theme of the lesson is found in the opening paragraph of section one of the manual: “We are living in an evil and wicked world. But while we are in the world, we are not of the world. We are expected to overcome the world and to live as becometh saints.”[3]

The lesson in the manual is introduced by observing Joseph Fielding Smith’s interactions with Mormons serving in the US military and how impressed he was that they lived their religion in the conditions of worldliness. Then, in section 1 (which is a very long section), President Smith outlines the basic idea behind being “in the world, but not of the world,” then goes into a few specific principles of our religion that consist of being in the world but not of the world: keeping the Sabbath day holy, obeying the Word of Wisdom, respecting the name of Deity, and dressing modesty and keeping the law of chastity. Section 2 addresses the concern that those who are of the world tend to prosper in the world while Saints may not. His response is, essentially to say, “Well, of course they prosper—they control the world and play by its games. The world won’t last as it is however, and someday the tables will be turned.” Section 3 focuses on blessings that come from being not of the world, and the ability that our example can have in conversion.

Extra-Manual Resources and Quotes

For the “from the life of Joseph Fielding Smith” section, a fun little insight into Joseph Fielding Smith’s life that relates to the military is that he loved flying:

One biographer wrote of his experience finding out about Joseph Fielding Smith’s hobby of flying in jet planes “at an age when many men are tucked safely away in a nursing home absorbing liniment”:

“I remember my surprise one day when I called at his office in Salt Lake City. His secretary, Rubie Egbert, said, ‘Step to the window here and maybe you can see him.’ Curious, I walked to the window. But all that I could see was a jet streaking through the blue sky high above the Great Salt Lake. Its trail of white vapor clearly marked some steep climbs, loops, dives, rolls and turns. …

“‘You mean he’s in that plane?’ I asked incredulously.

“‘Oh yes, that’s him all right. He’s very fond of flying. Says it relaxes him. A friend in the National Guard calls him up and says, ‘How about a relaxing?’ and up they go. Once they get in the air he often takes over the controls. Flew down to Grand Canyon and back last week, 400 miles an hour!’

I could not resist driving to the airport to be there when he landed. As the two-place T-Bird roared down the runway to a stop, from the rear cockpit, in suit and helmet, climbed this benign old gentleman, then about 80, smiling broadly. ‘That was wonderful!’ he exclaimed. ‘That’s about as close to heaven as I can get just now.’

At age 92 he was advanced in the National Guard to the honorary rank of brigadier-general. ‘But they still didn’t want me to fly alone.’ Later he limited his flying to commercial jetliners. … ‘The big planes are not so exciting as the T-Bird, but at my age it’s a real comfort to be able to move faster than sound,’ he said at 95.[4]

Joseph Fielding Smith in a Jet, c. 1954. Image courtesy LDS.org.

Joseph Fielding Smith in a Jet, c. 1954.
Image courtesy LDS.org.

As for section 1, there are several sub sections that apply specific principles, one thing that struck me about the subjects emphasized by President Smith reflect the time period in the Church’s history that his ministry took place. Although all those principles are eternal, the emphasis placed upon them and other doctrines to be separate from the world has shifted according to the needs of the times. During the pioneer era the gathering, building up the literal kingdom of God in the Great Basin region, and polygamy were strongly emphasized. After those aspects of Mormonism became unviable in the 1890s, there was a shift in emphasis towards church and temple attendance, living by the Word of Wisdom (a principle not fully enforced between the Kirtland Era and the 1920s), and living in more publically respectable ways (i.e., not swearing).[5] That is, for example, why Elder J. Golden Kimball (1853-1938) is often portrayed as having problems with swearing and living by the Word of Wisdom—he grew up in an earlier era of Mormonism where those weren’t a big deal and survived into a time where they were, but already had habits from the earlier times. One also catches glimpses of this in the chapters present in the Teachings of the Presidents of the Church manuals within certain time periods—asides from Brigham Young, all the chapters devoted entirely to the Word of Wisdom come from men who served as presidents in the first half of the 20th century—Joseph F. Smith, Heber J. Grant, George Albert Smith, David O. McKay. Asides from Joseph F. Smith, all the chapters devoted entirely to the Law of Chastity come from the era of the Sexual Revolution in the 1960s-1980s—Harold B. Lee, Spencer W. Kimball, and Ezra Taft Benson. Joseph Fielding Smith stands as sort of a transitional figure between the two eras, with both topics covered in this chapter.

In speaking of Sabbath day observance, President Gordon B. Hinckley taught the following:

I mention the Sabbath day. The Sabbath of the Lord is becoming the play day of the people. It is a day of golf and football on television, of buying and selling in our stores and markets. Are we moving to mainstream America, as some observers believe? In this I fear we are. What a telling thing it is to see the parking lots of the markets filled on Sunday in communities that are predominantly LDS.

Our strength for the future, our resolution to grow the Church across the world, will be weakened if we violate the will of the Lord in this important matter. He has so very clearly spoken anciently and again in modern revelation. We cannot disregard with impunity that which He has said.[6]

As for the Word of Wisdom, when it comes to Joseph Fielding Smith’s declaration that “The Word of Wisdom is a basic law. It points the way and gives us ample instruction in regard to both food and drink, good for the body and also detrimental. If we sincerely follow what is written with the aid of the Spirit of the Lord, we need no further counsel,”[7] President Boyd K. Packer had the following to say:

We get strange letters asking if this or that is a part of the Word of Wisdom. Marijuana is not listed in section 89! And neither is strychnine or arsenic listed! But, of course, they are not habit-forming….

People write asking what is the position of the Church on the Word of Wisdom, for instance, on soft drinks or something. And we think, “Why do they have to ask?” It is a principle, and you have the freedom to do as you will. You do not have to be commanded in all things. Without having to have the Church deliver a statement on it, you should know what the Lord’s position is.[8]

Consider also the following story from Joseph F. Smith (Joseph Fielding Smith’s father, and 6th president of the Church): “From my childhood—for twenty years and upwards I chewed the filthy weed [tobacco]. I never saw the moment during the whole time that I was not inwardly ashamed of it.” After a meeting where President Brigham Young learned that he chewed, Joseph recalled that, “When I went out I was resolved that I who so hated hypocricy—now thoroughly hating myself—would conquer my appetite for tobacco or know the reason why. I tried with it in my pocket, but it was no use. My hand would involuntarily find and put it in my mouth, and it seemed when at last it was all gone, and I vowed I would not touch again.” He found that trying to quit nicotine made him “cross and crabbed,” but finally: “I conquered—and now, when I think of it, I feel ashamed that I was so weak, and strange to say the appetite, though still with me and perhaps as strong as ever, it is at my command. It is no longer the master, but a subdued, conquered enemy ever on the alert to revolt, but daily growing weaker and more faint.” (Joseph F. Smith to J. D. T. McAllister, 23 August 1875.)

Joseph Fielding Smith with Joseph F. Smith

Joseph Fielding Smith with Joseph F. Smith

David O. McKay taught that: “One of the most practical teachings of the Church regarding [self-control] is the Word of Wisdom. It is true. It deals principally with the appetite. You show me a man who has complete control over his appetite, who can resist all temptations to indulge in stimulants, liquor, tobacco, marijuana, and other vicious drugs, and I will show you a youth or man who has likewise developed power to control his passions and desires.” (CR, April 1968, 8.)

As for respecting the name of Deity, we have the following general advice on swearing from President Gordon B. Hinckley: “Be clean in language. There is so much of filthy, sleazy talk these days. I spoke to the young women about it. I speak to you [men] also. It tells others that your vocabulary is so extremely limited that you cannot express yourself without reaching down into the gutter for words. Dirty talk is unbecoming any man who holds the priesthood, be he young or old.”[9]

When it comes to discussion of modesty, it is interesting to note that this comes up in a year where there was such a furor about an Ensign article written by Brother Tad Callister on the subject (for more on that subject, click here). In addressing the role of men in modesty, I appreciated President Smith’s words that made it clear there are things men must do to be modest. This extends both from dress as well as thoughts and actions. At its root, modesty means freedom from exaggeration or self-control, with such ideas as a sense of honor and correctness of conduct playing into its origins. The following quote from Elder Jeffrey R. Holland adds further insight into modesty, double-standards, and men:

I have heard all my life that it is the young woman who has to assume the responsibility for controlling the limits of intimacy in courtship because a young man cannot. Seldom have I heard any point made about this subject that makes me more disappointed than that. What kind of man is he, what priesthood or power or strength or self-control does this man have, that lets him develop in society, grow to the age of mature accountability, perhaps even pursue a university education and prepare to affect the future of colleagues and kingdoms and the course of the world, but yet does not have the mental capacity or the moral will to say, “I will not do that thing?” No, this sorry drugstore psychology would have us say, “I just can’t help myself. My glands have complete control over my life–my mind, my will, my entire future.”

To say that a young woman in such a relationship has to bear her responsibility and that of the young man too is one of the most inappropriate suggestions I can imagine.… [I] refuse to accept the feigned innocence of some young man who wants to sin and call it psychology.[10]

Jeffrey R. Holland

Jeffrey R. Holland

Going back to the idea of emphases, while not mentioned in the manual, in our day a problem that is increasingly addressed in general conference is overuse and abuse of virtual reality and cyberspace—being, as Elder D. Todd Christofferson once said, “of the world while not being in the world.”[11] One recent address given in the April 2014 general conference can be found here. Another BYU speech by Elder David A. Bednar (and perhaps the single greatest sermon I’ve seen on the subject) may be found in text form here and in audio-visual form here.

One final thought relates to Joseph Fielding Smith’s statement in section 2 that, “Life never was intended to be easy, but the Lord has promised that he will cause all trials and difficulties to result in our good. He will give us strength and ability to overcome the world and to stand firm in the faith despite all opposition.” I was reminded of the following quote from Terryl and Fiona Givens about the role of trials and difficulties in spiritual growth:

Darwin had much to teach us, not just about physical evolution, but about spiritual evolution as well. This is especially true in his account of the honeybee, which well serves as a parable for our ascent into mortal life. The honeybee, Darwin points out in his Origin of Species, has a glaring defect as a creature. Its poison is effective in killing prey, enabling it to defend itself and its nest. But delivery of that poison can only come at the cost of its own life. Darwin speculates that this is because the bee’s stinger was originally “a boring and serrated instrument,” probably used for extracting food from fibrous sources. It was therefore, in his words, “not perfected for its present purpose” of defense.

The question, of course, is why has the stinger not evolved into something more perfect in the millions of years since? Why did the evolutionary process cease? Why did natural selection not accomplish its end of making the bee as perfect as possible? Certainly, a bee that can kill without sacrificing its life is an improvement over one that cannot. A simple smoothing of the bee’s serrated edge would do the trick quite nicely and efficiently. Why was the bee’s progress toward species perfection aborted so precipitously and—in the case of myriad individuals and even hives—calamitously?

This is Darwin’s explanation: “Natural selection tends only to make each organic being as perfect as, or slightly more perfect than, the other inhabitants of the same country with which it comes into competition. And we see that this is the standard of perfection attained under nature.” And then he adds this declaration: “Natural selection will not produce absolute perfection.” What he means is this: the law of natural selection, what Herbert Spencer will call the principle of survival of the fittest, ensures that any competition for limited resources will favor those who are in any way advantaged over their competitors. It will weed out those who are inferior or even mediocre, and allow to prevail those who have greater strength, agility, speed, or survival skills.

The long-term effect of this principle is to breed creatures that are, in Darwin’s terms, “more perfect than their peers.” But the law of natural selection also has a striking limitation, and this is what he means by saying it can never produce absolute perfection. This limitation is perfectly illustrated by the common honeybee. In the struggle for survival, the bee’s development, even with a flawed stinger, was sufficient to securely establish its position in the natural world. Once it achieved species equilibrium, and lacking conflict and opposition to further challenge, stimulate, and refine its development, its progress was essentially halted. As William Blake said, in one of the greatest insights of the modern age, “without contraries, is no progression.” We are apparently made of the same stuff as Darwin’s honeybee. We need the continuing spiritual friction of difficulty, opposition, and hardship, or we will suffer the same stasis as the bee.[12]

"We are apparently made of the same stuff as Darwin’s honeybee. We need the continuing spiritual friction of difficulty, opposition, and hardship, or we will suffer the same stasis as the bee."

“We are apparently made of the same stuff as Darwin’s honeybee. We need the continuing spiritual friction of difficulty, opposition, and hardship, or we will suffer the same stasis as the bee.”

Come unto Christ Moment

The Come unto Christ moment for the week reflects on the situation from which the phrase “in the world but not of the world” comes from. The author of the Gospel of John and the epistles from John brought out Christ’s theme that there must be a difference between the world and Christ’s followers, and that we will suffer, if only in part, the experiences Jesus had during his ministry because we follow the example of one who declared: “I am not of this world” (John 8:23) in a corrupted, fallen existence. In teaching the parable of the true vine, the Christ taught that, “If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me before it hated you. If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you.” (John 15:18-19.) During the great Intercessory Prayer, Christ prayed that his disciples (“the men which thou [God] gavest me [Christ] out of the world” [John 17:6]) would “be one, as we are” but also prayed, “not that thou shouldest take them out of the world, but that shouldest keep them from evil. They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth. As thou hast sent me into the world, even so have I also sent them into the world.” (John 17:11, 15-18.)

It seems, from what Christ prayed for, that the elect, given to Christ by God must remain in the world to carry on the ministry of our Lord, redeeming the world and pushing back the darkness. Returning the true vine lesson, Christ taught, “He that believeth on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do; because I go unto my Father.” (John 14:12.) Jesus lived only a short time on earth. His ministry was only about three years, his life less than 35 years. Although He still works within the world by revelation and by His grace, for the most part we are His hands—His representatives on earth. At baptism and every time we partake of the sacrament, we declare that we “are willing to take upon [us] the name of [the] Son, and always remember him” (Moroni 4:3). By so covenanting, it becomes our responsibility and duty to us to minister and enrich the lives of those around us in the way that the Savior would—particularly to minister to those in need, both physically and spiritually. By doing so, we may collectively do greater works in changing the world than Christ was able to accomplish in the short time He was on the earth. It will not, however, always be easy to do so, as there is stiff opposition to the cause. Yet, it will be worth it, since the gospel of Jesus Christ is, in the words of President George Albert Smith, “be a panacea [cure-all] for all their ills” and “the only thing that will bring them peace while they remain upon the earth.”[13] In the words of President David O. McKay, “What the sun in the heavenly blue is to the earth struggling to get free from winter’s grip, so the gospel of Jesus Christ is to the sorrowing souls yearning for something higher and better than mankind has yet found on earth.”[14]

"He that believeth on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do; because I go unto my Father."

“He that believeth on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do; because I go unto my Father.”

A Deeper Look

In the Joseph Fielding Smith manual, he notes that, “Do not get the impression from what I have said that I feel that we should keep aloof from everybody outside of the Church and not associate with them. I have not said that, but I do want us to be consistent Latter-day Saints, and if the people of the world walk in darkness and sin and contrary to the will of the Lord, there is the place for us to draw the line.”[15] I have been rereading Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix recently, and was reminded of the line given in a discussion between Harry Potter and his godfather, Sirius Black. In the discussion, they speak of an evil woman (Dolores Umbridge), and Harry, linking evil with his arch-enemy Voldemort, muses whether she is one of Voldemort’s servants, known as Death Eaters. Sirius responds that he’s “sure she’s no Death Eater,” and while she’s foul enough to be one, “the world isn’t split into good people and Death Eaters.”[16] While this comes from a work of fiction, and a somewhat controversial work at that, there is value in this lesson—the world is too complex to split people into neat categories. In this case, one cannot split the world into being wicked or Mormon, worldly or LDS. There are good people outside of the Church and some bad people within. We can work with people outside of the Church to bring to pass God’s purposes in the earth. As Elder Dallin H. Oaks taught in the October 2014 Semiannual General Conference:

We are to live in the world but not be of the world. We must live in the world because, as Jesus taught in a parable, His kingdom is “like leaven,” whose function is to raise the whole mass by its influence (see Luke 13:21; Matthew 13:33; see also 1 Corinthians 5:6–8). His followers cannot do that if they associate only with those who share their beliefs and practices. But the Savior also taught that if we love Him, we will keep His commandments (see John 14:15)….

… I will speak of how those principles should apply in a variety of familiar circumstances in which the Savior’s teachings should be followed more faithfully.

I begin with what our young children learn in their play activities. Too often non-Mormons here in Utah have been offended and alienated by some of our members who will not allow their children to be friends with children of other faiths. Surely we can teach our children values and standards of behavior without having them distance themselves or show disrespect to any who are different.

Many teachers in church and school have grieved at the way some teenagers, including LDS youth, treat one another. The commandment to love one another surely includes love and respect across religious lines and also across racial, cultural, and economic lines. We challenge all youth to avoid bullying, insults, or language and practices that deliberately inflict pain on others. All of these violate the Savior’s command to love one another.[17]

"We must live in the world because, as Jesus taught in a parable, His kingdom is “like leaven,” whose function is to raise the whole mass by its influence."

“We must live in the world because, as Jesus taught in a parable, His kingdom is “like leaven,” whose function is to raise the whole mass by its influence.”

In an inspiring general conference address given in 1906, Elder B.H. Roberts of the Seventy addressed this theme as well. After discussing the First Vision and the Restoration of the Gospel, he noted that:

[Although] the Lord has opened the heavens and has given a new dispensation of the Gospel, it does not follow that His servants or His people are to be contentious; that they are to make war upon other people for holding different views respecting religion. Hence this caution to the Elders of the Church that they should not contend against other churches, make war upon their tenets, or revile even the revilers. At an earlier date still, the Lord had said to Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer:

“If you have not faith, hope and Charity, you can do nothing. Contend against no church, save it be the church of the devil. Take upon you the name of Christ, and speak the truth in soberness.” (Dc. & Cov. Sec. 18, 19-21.)

“The church of the devil” here alluded to I understand to mean not any particular church among men, or any one sect of religion, but something larger than that—something worldwide—something that includes within its boundaries all evil wherever it may be found; as well in schools of philosophy as in Christian sects; as well in systems of ethics as in systems of religion—something that includes the whole empire of Satan—what I shall call “The Kingdom of Evil.”

In speaking of the Church of the Devil, Roberts addressed a common Mormon assumption, drawn from the writings of Nephi in the Book of Mormon, that the Catholic Church is the Church of the Devil and the LDS Church is the Church of the Lamb. He noted that, “I would not like to take that position, because it would leave me with a lot of churches on my hands that I might not then be able to classify,” and even extolled the virtue and truth found in the Catholic Church as superior to many Protestant Sects. He then went on to draw this conclusion about the Church of the Devil and the Church of the Lamb:

I would not like, therefore, to designate the Catholic church as the church of the devil. Neither would I like to designate any one or all of the various divisions and subdivisions of Protestant Christendom combined as such, church; nor the Greek Catholic church; nor the Buddhist sects: nor the followers of Confucius; nor the followers of Mohammed; nor would I like to designate even the societies formed by deists and atheists as constituting the church of the devil. The Book of Mormon text ought to be read in connection with its context—with the chapter that precedes it and the remaining portions of the chapter in which It is found—then, I think, those who study it in that manner will be forced to the conclusion that the Prophet here has In mind no particular church, no particular division of Christendom, but he has in mind, as just stated, the whole empire of Satan; and perhaps the thought of the passage would be more nearly expressed if we use the term “the kingdom of evil” as constituting the church of the devil.

I understand the injunction to Oliver Cowdery to “contend against no church, save it be the church of the devil,” to mean that he shall contend against evil, against untruth, against all combinations of wicked men. They constitute the church of the devil, the “kingdom of evil, a federation of unrighteousness; and the servants of God have a right to contend against that which is evil, let it appear where it will, in Catholic or in Protestant Christendom, among the philosophical societies of deists and atheists, and even within the Church of Christ, if, unhappily, it should make its appearance there. But, let it be understood, we are not brought necessarily into antagonism with the various sects of Christianity as such.… Our relationship to the religious world is not one that calls for the denunciation of sectarian churches as composing the church of the devil. All that makes for untruth, for unrighteousness constitutes the kingdom of evil—the church of the devil. All that makes for truth, for righteousness, is of God; it constitutes the kingdom of righteousness—the empire of Jehovah; and, in a certain sense at least, constitutes the Church of Christ. With the latter—the kingdom of righteousness—we have no warfare. On the contrary both the spirit of the Lord’s commandments to His servants and the dictates of right reason would suggest that we seek to enlarge this kingdom of righteousness both by recognizing such truths as it possesses and seeking the friendship and co-operation of the righteous men and women who constitute its membership.[18]

B.H. Roberts of the Presidency of the Seventy.

B.H. Roberts of the Presidency of the Seventy.

I find this viewpoint a wonderful approach to the subject—when speaking of worldliness, we must recognize that Satan has reached his out and found footholds everywhere, including within our own Church, and must be fought wherever he is found: “against evil, against untruth, against all combinations of wicked men.” To fight this influence, we must join with all others who stand for righteousness—wherever they may be found, “seeking the friendship and co-operation of the righteous men and women.” This will involve some ecumenical outreach—cooperation and coordination with other religious groups outside of our own. They must be respected for the good that is in them, and not looked upon with condescension, for, “as in the drama the actor bearing the title role does not alone develop the thought of the poet’s mind, so we as the Church of Latter-day Saints, though bearing the honor of the position assigned to us, do not constitute the only force that God is using in bringing to pass His great and mighty purposes.”[19]

We must live in the world, but not be of the world.

We must live in the world, but not be of the world.

[1] LDS Hymns, 319

[2] Jeffrey R. Holland, “Israel, Israel, God is Calling,” CES Broadcast.

[3] Joseph Fielding Smith, Teachings of the Presidents of the Church: Joseph Fielding Smith (Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2013), 241

[4] Presidents of the Church Student Manual (Salt Lake City: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2012), 174.

[5] See, for example, Thomas G. Alexander, Mormonism in Transition 3rd ed. (Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Books, 2012), 273-287.

[6] Discourses of President Gordon B. Hinckley Volume 1: 1995-1999 (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 2005), 155-156.

[7] Smith, Teachings, 244.

[8] Boyd K. Packer, “The Instrument of Your Mind and the Foundation of Your Character”, BYU Speeches, 2 Feb 2003.

[9] Discourses of President Gordon B. Hinckley Volume 1: 1995-1999 (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 2005), 76.

[10] Jeffrey R. Holland, Of Souls, Symbols, and Sacraments [Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2001], 22-24.

[11] D. Todd Christofferson, “Brethren, We Have Word to Do,” CR, October 2012.

[12] Givens, Terryl; Fiona Givens (2012-10-01). The God Who Weeps: How Mormonism Makes Sense of Life (Kindle Locations 1000-1022). Deseret Book Company. Kindle Edition.

[13] George Albert Smith, Teachings of the Presidents of the Church: George Albert Smith (Salt Lake City: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2011), 124.

[14] David O. McKay Teachings of the Presidents of the Church: David O. McKay (Salt Lake City: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2003), 7.

[15] Smith, Teachings, 243.

[16] Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (New York: Scholastics Inc., 2003), 302.

[17] Dallin H. Oaks, “Loving Others and Living with Differences,” CR, Oct 2014.

[18] B.H. Roberts, G.C. April 1906, 14-15.

[19] B.H. Roberts, CR, April 1903, 13.